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Flux Pure Analyzer Essential VERIFIED Crack

AbrasionThe displacement and\/or detachment of metallic particles from a surface as a consequence of being exposed to flowing solids, fluids or gases.Abrasion ResistanceDegree of resistance of a material to abrasion or wear.Acid EmbrittlementEmbrittlement during pickling due to absorption of hydrogen.Age HardeningHardening by aging, usually after rapid cooling or cold working.AgingA change in properties of metals and alloys which occurs slowly at room temperature and will proceed rapidly at higher temperatures. The change in properties is often, but not always, due to a phase change (precipitation), but never involves a change in chemical composition of the metal or alloy.Air QuenchingAccelerated cooling of alloy in an air stream from temperatures above the Ac3 temperature.Air ScaleScale left on ferrous metal in processing, usually from heating in presence of air.Allowance (Tolerance)In a foundry, the clearance specified; difference in limiting sizes, as minimum clearance or maximum interference between mating parts, as computed arithmetically.AlloyA substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more chemical elements of which at least one is metal. Usually possesses qualities different from those of the components.Alloy SteelSteel containing significant quantities of alloying elements other than carbon and the commonly accepted amounts of manganese, silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus.Alpha - ferriteBody-centered cubic type of pure iron stable below 1670\u00b0F (910\u00b0C).Alpha MartensiteA form or stage of martensite of somewhat arbitrary distinction, probably representing the least developed and most distorted stage in the transformation of austenite to martensite at ordinary temperatures.Ambient TemperatureTemperature of the surrounding air.AnnealingHeating to and holding at a suitable temperature, followed by cooling at a suitable rate to lower the hardness or alter other mechanical or physical properties.Anticarburizing CompoundsCompounds applied to metallic surfaces to prevent surface carbonization.Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD)A secondary refining process in which argon, oxygen and nitrogen are injected into a molten bath of steel. The AOD process improves metal cleanliness and thus gives superior mechanical properties.Artificial AgingAn aging treatment above room temperature.As Cast (as-cast, u.m.)Referring to metal which has not received finishing (beyond gate removal or sandblasting) or treatment of any kind including heat treatment after casting. Similarly, as drawn, as forged, and as rolled.ASMAmerican Society for Metals.ASNTAmerican Society for Nondestructive Testing.ASTMAmerican Society for Testing and Materials.AusteniteThe face-centered-cubic phase of iron and steel, also referred to as gamma iron. In steel, a solid solution in which gamma iron is the solvent.Austenite SteelAny steel containing sufficient alloy to produce a stable austenitic (gamma iron) crystalline structure at ambient temperatures."}},"@type":"Question","name":"B","acceptedAnswer":"@type":"Answer","text":"BakeHeat in an oven to a low controlled temperature to remove gases or to harden a binder.BatchAmount or quantity of core or mold sand or other material prepared at one time.Batch OvenOven use to bake a number of cores at one time.Bead1) Half-round cavity in a mold, or half-round projection or molding on a casting, 2) a single deposit of weld metal produced by fusion.BHNBrinell Hardness Number.BimetalCasting, usually centrifugal, made of two different metals, fused together.Blacking CarbonCarbonaceous materials such as plumbago, graphite or powdered coke usually mixed with a binder and frequently carried in suspension in water or other liquid; used as thin facing applied to surfaces of molds or cores to improved casting finish.Blasting (Blast Cleaning)A process for cleaning or finishing metal objects by use of an air blast or centrifugal wheel that throws abrasive particles against the surface of the work pieces. Small, irregular particles of steel or iron are used as the abrasive in grit blasting, and steel or iron balls in shot blasting.BlisterA shallow blow with a thin film of the metal over it appearing on the surface of a casting.Blow Holes1) Holes in the head plate or blow plate of a core-blowing machine through which sand is blown from the reservoir into the core box. 2) Irregular shaped cavities with smooth walls produced in a casting when gas is entrapped during mold filling. The gas sources may be air, binder decomposition products or gases dissolved in the molten steel.BoilAgitation of a bath of metal caused by the liberation of a gas beneath its surface. May be deliberately induced by the addition of oxidizing material to a bath containing excess carbon. In the later case it is called a carbon boil and CO or CO2 are liberated.Bond1) Bonding substance or bonding agents - any material other than water, which, when added to foundry sands, imparts bond strength, 2) the overlapping of brick so as to give both longitudinal and transverse strength.Bond StrengthProperty of a foundry sand to offer resistance to deformation.BoringA machining method using single point tools on internal surfaces of revolution.Boss (Pad)A projection of circular cross-section on a casting. Usually intended for drilling and tapping for attaching parts.Bottom Running or PouringFilling of the mold cavity from the bottom by means of gates from the runner.Bright AnnealingA process carried out usually in a controlled furnace atmosphere, so surface does not oxidize, remaining bright.Brinell HardnessThe value of hardness of a metal on an arbitrary scale representing kg\/mm\u00b2, determined by measuring the diameter of the impression made by a ball of given diameter applied under a known load. Values are expressed in Brinell Hardness Numbers, BHN.Brittle FractureFracture with little or no plastic deformation. Smoothing machined holes or outside surfaces of castings by drawing, pushing on, or more broaches (special cutting tools) through the roughed out hole.Bulk DensityThe ratio of the weight of a material to its over-all volume (including any inherent porosity).Burned-On-SandA misnomer usually indicating metal penetration into sand resulting in a mixture of sand and metal adhering to the surface of a casting.BurnishingDeveloping a smooth finish on a metal by tumbling or rubbing with a polished hand tool.","@type":"Question","name":"C","acceptedAnswer":"@type":"Answer","text":"CADComputer-Aided Design.CAEComputer Aided Engineering.CAMComputer-Aided Manufacturing.CarbideA compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements.CarbonElement occurring as diamond and as graphite. Carbon reduces many metals from their oxides when heated with the latter, and small amounts of it greatly affect the properties of iron. Though classed as a nonmetallic, metallurgically, like boron, it is treated as a metal.Carbonitriding (Nicarbing)A process in which a ferrous alloy is case hardened by first being heated in a gaseous atmosphere of such composition that the alloy absorbs carbon and nitrogen simultaneously, and then being cooled at a rate that will produce desired properties.CarburizingA form of case hardening that produces a carbon gradient inward from the surface, enabling the surface layer to be hardened by either quenching directly from the carbonizing temperature or by cooling to room temperature, then reaustenitizing and quenching.Case HardeningA process of hardening a ferrous alloy so that the surface layer or case is made substantially harder than the interior or core. Typically case hardening process are carburizing, carbonitriding, and nitriding.CavitationThe formation and collapse of cavities or bubbles within a liquid.CementiteA compound of iron and carbon commonly known as iron carbide and having the approximate chemical structure, Fe3C. Cementite is characterized by an orthorhombic crystal structure.Centrifugal CastingCasting made in molds which are rotating so as to produce a centrifugal force in the molten metal.Charpy Impact TestA pendulum-type single-blow impact test in which the specimen, usually notched, is supported at both ends as a simple beam and broken by a falling pendulum. The energy absorbed in fracture, as impact strength or notch toughness.Chill (External)Metal, graphite or carbon blocks that are incorporated into the mold or core to locally increase the rate of heat removal during solidification and reduce shrinkage defects.Chill (Internal)A metallic device \/ insert in molds or cores at the surface of a casting or within the mold to increase the rate of heat removal, include directional solidification and reduce shrinkage defects. The internal chill may then become a part of the casting.CMMCoordinate Measuring Machine.CNCComputer Numerical Controlled Machine Tools.Coefficient of ExpansionUnit increase in size resulting from a unit increase in temperature; measured in inches per inch per degree Fahrenheit (in\/in\/1\/2\u00b0F) or in millimeter per millimeter per degree Celsius (mm\/mm\/1\/2\u00b0C).CohesionThe force by which like particles are held together. It varies with different metals and depends upon molecular arrangement due to heat treatment.Coining1) A process of straightening and sizing casting by die pressing, 2) a process for shaping metal.Cold CrackingCracks in cold or nearly cold metal due to excessive internal stress caused by contraction. Often brought about when the mold is too hard or casting is of unsuitable design.Cold LapWrinkled markings on the surface of an ingot or casting from incipient freezing of the surface.Cold ShotSmall globule of metal embedded in but not entirely fused with the casting.Cold ShutCasting defect caused by imperfect fusing or discontinuity of molten metal coming together from opposite directions in a mold, or due to folding of the surface. It may have the appearance of a crack or seam with smooth, rounded edges.Cold WorkPlastic deformation of a metal at room temperature. Substantial increases in strength and hardness may occur.Cold-Box Process1) Any core binder process that uses a gas or vaporized catalyst to cure a coated sand while it is in contact with the core box at room temperature.CollapsibilityThe requirement that a sand mixture break down under the pressure and temperatures developed during casting, in order to avoid hot tears or facilitate the separation of the sand and the casting.Color EtchingA micro-etch resulting from the formation of a thin film of a definite compound of the metal.Columnar StructureA coarse structure of parallel columns of grains, which is caused by highly directional solidification.Compression TestImposing a dead load on a small cylindrical test piece to determine compressive strength, expressed in pounds per sq. in.Compressive Strength (Yield)The maximum stress in compression that can be withstood without plastic deformation or failure.ConductionThe transmission of heat, sound, etc. by the transferring of energy from one particle to another.Conductivity (Thermal)The quantity of heat that flows through a material measured in heat units per unit time per unit of cross-sectioned area per unit of length, (electrical) the quantity of electricity that is transferred through a material of know cross-section and length.ConstituentA micrographically distinguishable part of an alloy or mixture.Contamination1) Radioactive deposition of radioactive material in any place where it is not desired, and particularly in any place where its presence may be harmful. The harm may be in vitiating the validity of an experiment or a procedure, or in actually being a source of danger to personnel, 2) presence of small percentages of deleterious elements in an alloy adversely affecting the alloy's mechanical properties and\/or casting soundness.ContractionThe volume change occurring in metals (except antimony and bismuth) and alloys on solidification and cooling to room temperature.Contraction CracksCracks formed by restriction of the metal while contracting in the mold; may occur just after solidification (called a hot tear) or a short time after the casting has been removed from the mold.Controlled AtmosphereAny gas or mixture of gases that prevents or retards oxidation and decarburization.ConvectionThe motion resulting in a fluid from the differences in density. In heat transmission, this meaning has been extended to include both forced and natural motion or circulation.ConverterA furnace in which a gas, usually air, is blown through the molten bath or crude metal for the purpose of oxidizing impurities.Conveyor, VibratoryA materials-handling device used usually with shakeout operations, to help clean sand from the castings as they are moved from one place to another in the foundry and as a feeding device to regulate materials flow. Operations with vibrational energy.Cooling CurveA curve showing the relationship between time and temperature during the solidification and cooling of a metal sample. Since most phase changes involve evolution or absorption of heat, there may be abrupt changes in the slope of the curve.Cooling, ControlledA process of cooling from an elevated temperature in a predetermined manner used to produce a desired microstructure to avoid hardening, cracking or internal damage.CopeUpper or topmost section of a flask, mold or pattern.CoreA performed sand aggregate inserted in a mold to shape the interior or that part of a casting which cannot be shaped by the pattern.Core BinderAny material used to hold the grains of core sand together.Core BlowA gas pocket in a casting adjacent to a core cavity caused by entrapping gases from the core.Core Box, CombinationCore box and core dryers from the same pattern. One half is used as a half core box and a core drier.Core CompoundA commercial mixture used as a binder in core sand.Core Density1) Permeability of core or 2) weight per unit volume.Core HardnessThe ability of a core to resist scratching or abrasion.Core SandSand for making cores to which a binding material has been added to obtain good cohesion and permeability after drying. Usually low in clays.Core ShiftA variation from specified dimensions of a cored section due to a change in position of the core or misalignment of cores in assembling.Core Vents1) holes made in the core for escape of gas. 2) A metal screen or slotted piece used to form the vent passage in the core box employed in a core-blowing machine. 3) A wax product, round or oval in form, used to form the vent passage in a core.Coring (Metallurgical)Variable composition due to the solidification characteristics of an alloy. Typically these compositional differences occur on a micro scale, the distances between compositional extremes being controlled by the solidification structure of the alloy.Corrosion1) Gradual chemical or electrochemical attack on a metal by atmosphere, moisture or other agents, 2) chemical attack of furnace linings by gases, slags, ashes or other fluxes occurring in various melting practices.Corrosion IndexA number expressing the maximum depth in mils to which corrosion would penetrate in one year on the basis of a linear extrapolation of the penetration occurring during the lifetime of a given test or service.Corrosion WearWear in which chemical or electrochemical reaction with the environment is significant.CoverA protective blanket laid on a melt to exclude oxidizing atmosphere and in the case of magnesium to prevent its igniting. Neutral covers simply protect metal from atmosphere; reacting covers contain an agent such as a deoxidizer.Cover CoreA core set in place during the ramming of a mold to cover and complete a cavity partly formed by the withdrawal of a loose part of the pattern. Also used to form part or all of the cope surface of the mold cavity. A core placed over another core to create a flat parting line.Crack, Hot TearA rupture occurring in a casting at or just below the solidifying temperature by a pulling apart of the soft metal, caused by thermal contraction stresses.Cracking StripA fin of metal molded on the surface of a casting to prevent cracking.CreepThe flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of time at stresses lower than the normal yield strength. The effect is particularly important if the temperature of stressing is in the vicinity of the recrystallization temperature of the metal.Creep LimitThe maximum stress that will result in creep at a rate lower than an assigned rate.Critical Cooling RateThe minimum rate of continuous cooling just enough to prevent undesired transformations.Cross SectionA view of the interior of an object that is represented as being cut in two, the cut surface presenting the cross section of the object.CrucibleA ceramic pot or receptacle made of materials such as graphite or silicon carbide, with relatively high thermal conductivity, bonded with clay or carbon, and used in melting metals; sometimes applied to pots made of cast iron, steel, or wrought steel.Crucible FurnaceA furnace fired with coke, oil, gas, or electricity in which metals are melted in a refractory crucible.CrystalA physically homogeneous solid in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a three-dimensional repetitive pattern.Crystal LatticeThe way atoms are arranged in a crystal. Spacewise, there are only 14 different lattices.Crystalline FractureFracture of a brittle metal, showing definite crystal faces in the fractured surface.Curing Time (No Bake)That period of time needed before a sand mass reaches maximum hardness.Cutoff Machine, AbrasiveA device using a thin abrasive wheel rotating at high speed to cut off gates and risers from castings, or in similar operations.","@type":"Question","name":"D","acceptedAnswer":"@type":"Answer","text":"Datum PointsIn layout and machining operations the reference points on a datum plane from which dimensions are measured.Decant1) Pour from one vessel to another, 2) pour off molten metal without disturbing the sludge.DecarburizationLoss of carbon from the surface of a ferrous alloy as a result of heating in a medium, usually oxygen, that reacts with carbon.Deep EtchingMacroetching; etching for examination at a low (less than 10X) magnification, in a reagent that attacks the metal to a much greater extent than normal for microscopic examination. Gross features may be developed; i.e., abnormal grain size, segregation, cracks, or grain flow.DefectA discontinuity in the product whose severity is judged unacceptable in accordance with the applicable product specification.Deformation TestAn AGS test using an instrument, such as the Dietert Universal Sand-Strength Testing machine (with deformation accessory), to determine the amount in inches that the sand specimen is compressed before it ruptures.DegasserA material employed for removing gases from molten metals and alloys.DegassingUsually a chemical reaction resulting from a compound added to molten metal to remove gases from the metal. Often inert gases a


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